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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 MaritimeEducationinEstonia
TheEstonianMaritimePolicy20122020(Ministryof
Economic 2012) is a national development plan,
which aims to develop a synergy in the maritime
sectorinEstonia. Thedevelopment planhas setfive
priorities and one of the priorities recommends that
the Estonian ma
ritime education, research and
development must be on high level. In order to
complete the priority, two objectives has been set.
One of them states that the maritime education in
Estonia must ensure highlevel education to all
specialists in different maritime fields including
seafarers, marine engineers, hydrographs, fisheries
technologists,portma
nagers,shipagentsandothers.
To fulfil aforementioned objective, measure 8.1‐
development and implementation of the Maritime
EducationConcept(hereinafterMEC),hasbeenfixed.
MECwilldescribeperspectiveofmaritimeeducation,
theneed for specialists, structure, size,funding, and
other important aspects of the maritime sector,
including research. MEC is the ba
sic document for
maritime education facilities that are offering
maritimetrainingondifferentlevel.Theresultsofthis
survey are one of the inputs to develop MEC.
Furthermore, outcomes will be useful for future
developmentofmaritimeeducationandtrainingand
for further research. In addition to this study, other
surveysgiveinputforthedevelopmentofMEC.For
example “Lab
our Competences and Skill Levels and
Needs of the Labour Market in the Fisheries Sector
“(2012) and “The Maritime Labour Survey” (2015).
Furthermore,theconceptissupportedbythesurvey
of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and
Communications,ʺThe Labour Demand and Supply
Projections Up To Yea
r 2023ʺ, and in 2011 in the
Estonian Maritime Academy completedʺMaritime
Cluster Surveyʺ. The aims of this survey were to
assess the satisfaction of the alumni with maritime
education institutions, analyse different possibilities
formaritimeeducation,createanoverviewofalumni
careeropport
unitiesandgetanoverviewofpeopleʹs
willingness working in the maritime sector, to
contributetothedevelopmentofmaritimeeducation
inEstonia.
Study of Estonian Maritime Education Institutions
Alumni
ML.Kuuse&M.Kopti
EstonianMaritimeAcademyofTallinnUniversityofTechnology,Tallinn,Estonia
ABSTRACT:FromNovember2015toJune2016ResearchandDevelopmentCentreoftheEstonianMaritime
Academy(hereinafterR&DCentreofEMARA)carriedoutasurveyamongthealumniofmaritimeinstitutions
inEstonia.ThesurveybasedonaquestionnairedevelopedbyR&DCentreofEMARAincooperationwiththe
academ
ies’management,curriculaleadersandmaritimeassociations.Participantsincludeddifferentmaritime
education institutionsalumni, including the citizens of the Republic of Estonia, who had studied in marine
educationalinstitutionsabroad.Intotal343maritimeeducationalinstitutionalumniparticipatedinthesurvey.
http://www.transnav.eu
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 11
Number 2
June 2017
DOI:10.12716/1001.11.02.20
356
1.2 Methodology
The R&D Centre of EMARA developed the
questionnaire in cooperation with the academy’s
managementandcurriculumleaders.Toincreasethe
reliability of the questionnaire, R&D Centre
cooperated with the Estonian Seamen’s Independent
Union,TheAssociationofEstonianDeckOfficers,The
Association of Estonian Marine Engineers, Estonian
Shipmastersʹ Associations,
students, staff members
and alumni of EMARA. Together with a number of
corrections, it took three months to finalize the
questionnaire.
Theparticipantshadtoanswergeneral questions,
questions regarding education and careerrelated
questions.Itwasalsopossibletoexpresswillingness
to contribute in to the development of Estonian
maritime education. In addition, at the end of the
survey, respondents were able to add additional
comments.ThesurveywasinEstonian.
Thesurveyincludeddifferentmaritimeeducation
institutions alumni, including the citizens of the
Republic of Estonia, who had studied in marine
educationalinstitutionsabroad.
Ninedifferenteducationalinstitutions,28
different
professional associations, which are active in the
maritime sector, 11 different public bodies and 5
maritimeclassificationsocietiesoperatinginEstonia,
were involved. The questionnaire was sent to more
than900uniqueemailaddresses.
Research enterprise Psience was responsible for
onlinesolutionofthesurveyandsystematisedresults
for further analysis. The poll was available online
fromMarch7toJune 28in2016.Intotal343maritime
educational institutions alumni participated in the
survey.
The analysis of the results is divided throughout
the report according to whether the maritime
educational institution was most recently graduated
in1992and
beforeor1993andlater.Suchdistribution
relieson the factthat in 1992 the EstonianMaritime
EducationCentre,asaninstitutionofhighermaritime
education,wasfounded.(MaritimeAcademy1995)
Detailedanalysiswasdoneaccordingtothemain
graduated curricula, which were Deck Officer, The
OperationandManagement
ofMarine DieselPower
plants, Refrigeration Technology, Port and Shipping
Management, Waterways Safety Management,
FishingandFishProcessingTechnology.Reportgives
informationifthealumnistartedtoworkinmaritime
sectorandwhethertheystillworkthere.Inaddition,
analysiswasdoneabouthowthefirstjobwasfound,
howlong
ittookaftergraduationtofindajob,what
the position was after graduation and what was
positionwhileanswering.Howlongittooktogetup
to the position the respondents had by the time of
answering.Intheendofthesurvey,itwaspossibleto
leave remarks
about the Estonian maritime sector,
whichwasaddedtothereports’qualitativeanalysis.
2 THERESULTS
2.1 Generalinformation
Among the alumni there were 58 participants who
hadgraduatedmaritime educationalinstitution1992
or earlier (hereinafter group I) and 285 who had
graduated in 1993 or later (hereinafter group II).
Two
percent of participants in the group I were female.
The same percentage is 31% in the group II. One of
thereasonfor suchincreasecould bethat after1992
someofthe developedcurriculawere alsoattractive
tofemalestudents(forexamplefisheriestechnologies,
port and shipping management
and hydrography).
All participants in group I speak Estonian as native
language and in group II 77% speak Estonian, 22%
Russian and 1% mentioned some other language as
their native language. 125 participants of 129
answeredtheirpermanentresidenceinEstonia.
30% of participants had most recently graduated
Deck Officer curriculum,
15% the Operation and
ManagementofMarineDieselPowerplants,14%Port
and Shipping Management and 8% Refrigeration
Technology(Figure1).
Figure1.Allgraduatedcurricula
Figure2.SatisfactionwiththetheoreticalandpracticalpreparationinEstonianMaritimeAcademy
357
Themostrecentgraduatedlevelofeducationwas
applied sciences/bachelor for 56% of participants,
vocationaleducationfor23%andmasterfor14%.4%
of participants had graduated maritime institution
abroad and 3% some other level (e.g. specialised
maritime secondary education). 88% of group I
alumni started their first job according
to their
studies.Thispercentageis69%ingroupII.
The participants were asked to explain why they
chosemaritimeeducation.Theanswersweredivided
into7 categories ofwhich the most popular (24% of
answers) was that maritime education appeared
interesting. 19% of participantshad specific
professional interest or
earlier experience, 18% had
great interest in maritime field and 17% were
influenced by family members and friends or by
familytraditions.Theanalysiswerealsomadebyall
main curricula and it showed that 50% of fisheries
technology and 31% of marine diesel power plants
graduates had very specific interest
in the speciality
while selecting speciality. 21% of port and shipping
management, 19% of refrigeration technology and
18% of deck officer graduates relied on their family
traditions or suggestion of family member/friend
whilechoosingmaritimeeducation.
Participantshadgraduatedaltogether462timesof
which57%wasappliedsciences/bachelordegree,28%
vocational, 10% master studies and 5% others.
Applied higher education from Estonian Maritime
Academy was the most common degree (249
responses,54%)andmaster level inthesame school
was graduated 31 times (which makes 7% of all
answers).11%ofparticipantscontinuedafterapplied
higher education on master level and
4% continued
aftervocationalschoolonhigherlevel.
During years 20112014, the satisfaction with the
education in Estonian Maritime Academy increased.
Since2001alumniwereconstantlymorepleasedwith
thetheoreticalratherthanpracticalpartofthestudies
(Figure 2). From group II 76% out of 229 had their
firstjobinprivateand24%onpublicsector.During
survey50%of120wereworkinginpublicand50%in
private sector. In group I 26% of 57 participants
started to work in private and 74% in public sector.
While answering, 40% out of 15 were working in
private and
60% in public sector. 88% from group I
and 69% participants from group II had their first
position in maritime sector and directly related to
their studies. In total, 73% of respondents had their
firstpositioninthesamefieldastheywerestudying.
191 participants had their first job
offshore and for
91% of them it was the same field as they were
studying.Hundredparticipantsstartedtheirfirstjob
on shore and 76% of them in maritimesector in the
field of their studies. According to the Maritime
Administration in Estonian, there are 8992 seafarers
with valid certificates to
work on board as of 11
th
of
November 2015. 14% of participants had never
worked in maritime sector. 23% of 222 participants
who marked their average gross wage earn on
average15012000EUR/month.
2.2 DeckOfficers
88% of participants who had graduated deck officer
curriculum had their first job directly related to the
studies(Figure3).
89%ofgraduatesstartedworkingalreadyduring
studiesorlessthanoneyearaftergraduation.7%of
deck officers also graduated master degree. 36% of
participants found their first job through school or
afterinternship,whichshowshowimportantitisto
keep contact with enterprises and the role of
educationinstitution.77%ofgraduatesfromgroupI
and 17% from group II started working in public
sector after studies. 97% out of 115 deck officer
graduates started working offshore and 73, which
makes62%ofthemarestillworkingoffshoreduring
survey.Altogether72%ofdeckofficergraduatesare
workingonapositionrelatedtotheirstudiesduring
survey.Onaverage,ittook11yearsforgraduatesto
becomeacaptain,6yearsuntilbecomingchiefofficer
and 4 years to become second officer. According to
thedatafromEstonianMaritimeAdministrationthey
havereleased221captaincertificates(GT
>3000)and
based on the graduation year it can be said that it
takes average of 15 year to become captain.
Nevertheless,thisstatisticsdoesnotshowifcertificate
holdersactuallyworkascaptainsaswell.24%ofdeck
officergraduatesearnaverage2001‐3000EUR/month
and 18% both 3001
4000 and 15002000 EUR/month.
Thehighestsalaryisearnedontankersanddredging
vessels. According to the survey, seafarers who sail
underEstonianflag,earnalotlessthanforexample
the ones who sail under Finland or the Netherlands
flag.
51%ofalldeckofficersgraduatesareinterested
in
contributing to the development of maritime
education.
Figure3.Deckofficergraduatesworkinginmaritimesector
aftergraduating
2.3 TheOperationandManagementofMarineDiesel
Powerplants
50 marine engineering graduates participated in the
survey. 90% of them started working in maritime
sectoronthe field related to theirstudies right after
graduating. 93% of graduates started working as
marineengineersduringtheirstudiesorinlessthan
358
oneyearaftergraduation.Sixpercentofmarinediesel
powerplantsalumnialsograduatedmasterdegree.
31%ofgraduatesfoundtheirfirstpositionduring
internship, which shows its influential role during
studies. 61% graduates from group I and 21% from
groupIIhadtheirfirstpositioninpublicsector.
73%
of graduates were still working off shore in
the field of their studies during survey. 23 of them
(55%)areemployed as chiefengineers, 17as second
engineer.17%areworkingonshoreinthenavyoras
lecturers.Accordingtothestudy,ittakes10yearsto
becomechief
engineer,4yearsuntilsecondengineer
and1yeartobecomethirdengineer(Figure4).
Figure4.CareermodelforMarineEngineergraduates
EstonianMaritimeAdministration has issued 274
(GT > 3000) chief engineer certificates from 2006 to
2014.Relyingonthegraduationyearsthenaccording
to this statistics it takes 16 years to become chief
engineer.
19% of diesel power plants graduates earn on
average 500110000 EUR/month and 22% earns on
average
40015000 EUR/month. 69% of marine
engineers are planning to work until retirement or
until it is possible. Twentyseven participants
answered whether they would be interested in
developingmaritime education.52%were interested
and22%arealreadygivinglecturesorseminars.
2.4 RefrigerationTechnology
47% on refrigeration technology graduates
(16
participants)continuedafterschoolinthesamefield
thattheywerestudyingand83%foundajobinless
than one year, including during studies. 9% of the
alumni also graduated master degree. 39% of
refrigeration technology graduates found their first
position during internship or with the assistance of
the
maritimeeducationinstitution.
Some of the refrigeration technology alumni
started working on shore, but the position is still
related to their studies. 44% of graduates who
participatedinthesurveyhadtheirfirstjoboffshore
and56%onshore(Figure5).
Duringsurvey,13%ofgraduatesarestillworking
offshoreand50%onshore,ofwhich31%inmaritime
sector.Accordingtotheinformationfromgraduates,
it takes average 2 years to become refrigeration
engineerand4 yearstomakecareerinenterprisethat
handlesrefrigerationandconditioningequipment.
44% of graduates earn average 10011500
EUR/monthand33%
15012000EUR/month.Someof
thealumniwereinterestedincontributingeducation
development and some of them are already
participatingincarryingoutseminars.
Figure5. First position after graduating Refrigeration
Technology
2.5 PortandShippingManagement
59% of port and shipping management alumni had
theirfirstjobrelatedtotheirstudiesinthemaritime
sector.86%ofparticipantsstartedtheirfirstjobinless
thanoneyear.30%ofalumnialsograduatedmaster
level. Forty graduates out of