International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 5
Number 1
March 2011
The performance of Flag Vessels Fleet (FVF), com-
posed by almost 350 teachers and students from
Shanghai Maritime University (SMU), impressed
the viewers deeply at the opening ceremony of 2010
Shanghai Expo. Safety of the trainees is the most
important factor being considered by the organizer
and also by our university. In order to guarantee the
success of the program, the average risk of the Flag
Vessels fleet need to be controlled. Therefore, For-
mal Safety Assessment (FSA) method was applied
to identify, control and reduce the risk during the
trainings, rehearsals and performance. FSA is a
structured and systematic methodology, aimed at
enhancing maritime safety, including protection of
life, health, the marine environment and property, by
using risk analysis and cost benefit assessment [1].
In the middle of 1990s, the International Maritime
Organization (IMO) adopted FSA, initially put for-
ward by Maritime and Coast Guard Agency (MCA)
at the 62nd meeting of Maritime Safety Committee
(MSC), introduced FSA to the marine industry and
put it into use, and asked its members to be actively
involved in the research on ship safety [2]. After
that, FSA methodology was applied in different as-
pects of shipping industry, such as safety assessment
of containerships [3], cruise ships [4] and fishing
vessels [5]. Besides, the theory and methodology of
FSA was further studied, covering its theoretical ba-
sis and origin [6], details in every step [7-8].
This paper mainly focuses on the application of FSA
in quantitative risk assessment of man overboard.
Based on the analysis and conclusion of FSA ap-
proach, some useful suggestions are provided to
promote and improve safety of the FVF perfor-
The FVF, composed by 220 ships, formed a com-
plex chevron shape, and the complex chevron
Research on the Risk Assessment of Man
Overboard in the Performance of Flag Vessel
Fleet (FVF)
T. R. Qin, Q.Y. Hu & J.Y. Mo
Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, PR China
ABSTRACT: The performance of Flag Vessels impressed the viewers deeply at the opening ceremony of
2010 Shanghai Expo. Safety of the trainees is the key factor being considered by the organizer in the course
of trainings, rehearsals and final performance. Complex chevron shape of fleet increased the risk, such as col-
lision, grounding, waves damaging etc., which made it necessary to assess the risk of performers, especially
the risk of man overboard. In this paper, Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) method recommended by Interna-
tional Maritime Organization (IMO) was adopted to guarantee/assess the safety of the performers, especially
decrease the risk of man overboard. FSA includes five steps in general, which are Hazard Identification
(HAZID), Risk Assessment (RA), Risk Control Options (RCOs), Cost Benefit Assessment (CBA) and Rec-
ommendations for Decision-Making (RDM) respectively. In this paper, Brainstorming and Fault Tree Analy-
sis (FTA) methods were both used in HAZID step. Then the combination of the two indexes was employed to
calculate the risk distribution of the fleet in RA step. One is the possibility of man overboard and the other is
the consequence once the incident happens. Moreover, several RCOs were provided based on the risk distri-
bution mentioned above. Finally, based on the results of FSA assessment, some suggestions were carried out
to decrease the risk of performers according to CBA, like personnel arrangement according to risk degree of
different areas in fleet. It has been proved that applying FSA method to the fleet of flag vessels can reduce the
overall degree of risk and ensure the success of performance.