@article{Specht_Makar_Specht_2018, author = {Specht, Cezary and Makar, Artur and Specht, Mariusz}, title = {Availability of the GNSS Geodetic Networks Position during the Hydrographic Surveys in the Ports}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {12}, number = {4}, pages = {657-661}, year = {2018}, url = {./Article_Availability_of_the_GNSS_Geodetic_Specht,48,849.html}, abstract = {Geodetic network GNSS receivers are more commonly associated with positioning systems used in maritime hydrography. In terms of positioning accuracy when no terrain obstacles are present, they meet international hydrographic surveys standards (S-44) fully. Those standards are defined as 1m (0.95) for Exclusive Order and 2m (0.95) for Special Order. It is equally as important to ensure access to position which error is not higher than above mentioned maximum values. This is most often determined by the density of port infrastructure. This article presents the results of analysis of availability of hydrographic system that operates based on geodetic GNSS networks. Hydrographic surveys in question were undertaken in inner basins with diverse infrastructure. Three representative types of ports were selected for this reason: fishing type (Hel), medium sized, modern commercial type (Gdynia) and highly congested, narrow canal type (Gdansk – Motlawa). A non-public, geodetic GNSS network was used for all surveys. It is worth mentioning that the above network is at the moment the only available network that provides both GPS and GLONASS corrections. The surveys provided evidence that geodetic GNSS networks can be successfully utilised to determine position of hydrographic vessel in low and moderately developed ports as well as in Exclusive and Special Orders. In highly congested ports however, the availability of the above mentioned method of measurement can be insufficient to realise a survey.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.12.04.02}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Hydrographic Survey, IHO S-44, Global Positioning System (GPS), GLONASS, Gedetic Network, Exclusive Order, Special Order} }