HomePage
 




 


 

ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)
 

 

 

Editor-in-Chief

Associate Editor
Tomasz Neumann
 

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@am.gdynia.pl
Scan Pattern for the Maritime Navigator
1 Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Bergen, Norway
2 Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
ABSTRACT: The maritime high speed craft navigators` ultimate aim has for decades been to safely and efficient navigate the vessel to its destination. The last decade an increased use of technology has arrived at the maritime ship bridge. The use of Electronic Charts and Integrated Navigation Systems has revolutionized much of the work of the navigator, with the aim of enhancing the safety of navigation. The amount of information has drastically increased, and the need for a proper information management and an efficient visual scan pattern has been identified. Looking to other industries this has been introduced with success, and in this paper the authors present a proposed scan pattern for the maritime navigator. The analysis is based on an eye tracking data set collected from simulator- and field studies on board the world?s fastest littoral combat ship.
REFERENCES
Aopa 2009. Collision Avoidance Strategies and Tactics. In: INSTITUTE, A. S. (ed.) https://www.aopa.org/-/media/files/aopa/home/pilot-resources/asi/safety-advisors/sa15.pdf?la=en. Edition 3 ed. Frederik: Bruce Landsberg.
Asb, A. S. B. 2016. Aircraft Instrument Systems. Aviation Maintenance Technician. ASB.
Brown, D. L., Bautsch, H. S., Wetzel, P. A. & Anderson, G. M. 2002. Instrument scan strategies of F-117A pilots. DTIC Document.
Colvin, K., Dodhia, R. & Dismukes, R. K. Is pilots' visual scanning adequate to avoid mid-air collisions. Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 2005. Citeseer, 104-109.
Faa 2016. Aeronautical Information Manual In: ADMINSTRATION, F. A. (ed.). Washington: FAA.
Fitts, P. M., Jones, R. E. & Milton, J. L. 1949. Eye Fixations of Aircraft Pilots. III. Frequency, Duration, and Sequence Fixations When Flying Air Force Ground-Controlled Approach System (GCA). DTIC Document.
Forsman, F., Dahlman, J. & Dobbins, T. Developing a Standard Methodology For Dynamic Navigation in the Littoral Environment. Royal Institute of Naval Architects, International Conference, Human Factors in Ship Design and operation, 2011.
Forsman, F., Sjors, A., Dahlman, J., Falkmer, T. & Lee, H. C. 2012. Eye Tracking During High Speed Navigation at Sea. Journal of Transportation Technologies, Vol.02No.03, 8.
Gilchrist, I. D. & Harvey, M. 2000. Refixation frequency and memory mechanisms in visual search. Current Biology, 10, 1209-1212.
Glaholt, M. G. 2014. Eye tracking in the cockpit: a review of the relationships between eye movements and the aviator’s cognitive state.
Grepne-Takle, R. 2010. Assessment of Simulator-based Training of Ship Navigation Officers by Implementation of Collision Avoidance Methods other than ARPA Functionalities. MSc MSc Project, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Groves, P. D. 2013. Principles of GNSS, Inertial, and Multisensor Integrated Navigation Systems, London, Artech House Publishers.
Hareide, O. S. 2013. Control of position sensor input to ECDIS on High Speed Craft. Master of Science (MSc), University of Nottingham.
Hareide, O. S. & Ostnes, R. 2016a. Comparative Study of the Skjold-Class Bridge- and Simulator Navigation Training. European Journal of Navigation, 14, 57.
Hareide, O. S. & Ostnes, R. 2016b. Maritime usability study by analysing Eye Tracking data. Internation Navigation Conference Proceedings, 17.
Hareide, O. S., Ostnes, R. & Mjelde, F. V. Understanding the Eye of the Navigator. In: NAVIGATION, N. I. O., ed. European Navigation Conference, 2016 Helsinki. Confedent International.
Haslbeck, A., Schubert, E., Gontar, P. & Bengler, K. 2012. The relationship between pilots' manual flying skills and their visual behavior: a flight simulator study using eye tracking. Advances in Human Aspects of Aviation, 561-568.
Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H. & Van De Weijer, J. 2011. Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures, OUP Oxford.
IMO 1972. International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (Colregs). London: IMO.
IMO 2007. RESOLUTION MSC.252(83): Adoption of the Revised Performance Standard for Integrated Navigation Systems. London.
ISO 2010. Ergonomics of human-system interaction: Human-centred design for interactive systems : ISO 9241-210, ISO.
Kongsberg. 2016. K-Bridge Integrated Navigation System [Online]. Kongsberg. Available: https://www.km.kongsberg.com/ks/web/nokbg0397.nsf/AllWeb/62F2BB1A93881801C1257CB7003A7687/$file/KM_K_Bridge.pdf?OpenElement [Accessed 13.11.2016 2016].
Norris, A. 2010. Integrated Bridge Systems vol 2 ECDIS and Positioning, London, Nautical Institute.
Norris, A. 2015. Integrity and the Aid to Navigation. The Navigator, October.
Noton, D. & Stark, L. 1971. Scanpaths in saccadic eye movements while viewing and recognizing patterns. Vision research, 11, 929-IN8.
Pedrotti, M., Et Al. 2014. Automatic stress classification with pupil diameter analysis. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 30.3, 16.
Richards, C. 2004. Certain to Win: The Strategy of John Boyd, Applied to Business, Xlibris US.
Rin General Aviation Navigation Group, G. 2016. VFR Guide. In: NAVIGATION, R. I. O. (ed.) http://www.rin.org.uk. London: Royal Institute of Navigation.
Rolls-Royce. 2015. Unified Bridge Control [Online]. Rolls Royce. Available: http://www.rolls-royce.com/products-and-services/marine/product-finder/automation-and-control/control-centres-and-bridge-system/unified-bridge-control.aspx#section-product-search [Accessed 23.11 2015].
Tennfjord, G. S. 2016. Open Bridge [Online]. Kystverket.no: Kystverket. Available: http://www.kystverket.no/globalassets/prosjekter/e-navigation/ppt-e-nav.no-2016/1230_tennfjord_openbridge_vard.pdf [Accessed 12.11 2016].
Torskiy, V. G. & Topalov, V. P. 2013. On the Reliability of the Navigator? Navigation Complex System. In: A. Weintrit (ed.), Advances in Marine Navigation, Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation. CRC Press/ Balkema, London, UK, 293-296.
Van De Merwe, K., Van Dijk, H. & Zon, R. 2012. Eye movements as an indicator of situation awareness in a flight simulator experiment. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 22, 78-95.
Van Westrenen, F. 1999. The maritime pilot at work. Evaluation and use of a time-to-boundary model of mental workload in human-machine systems, HASS, 11.
Weintrit, A. 2011. International Recent Issues about ECDIS, e-Navigation and Safety at Sea: Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Taylor & Francis.
Wickens, C. D. 2002. Situation awareness and workload in aviation. Current directions in psychological science, 11, 128-133.
Wickens, C. D., Hollands, J. G., Banbury, S. & Parasuraman, R. 2015. Engineering psychology & human performance, Psychology Press.
Wingrove, M. 2016. Does ECDIS increase the risk of ship collisions? [Online]. Available: http://www.marinemec.com/news/view,does-ecdis-increase-the-risk-of-ship-collisions_42825.htm [Accessed 05.05.2016].
Yu, C.-S., Wang, E. M.-Y., Li, W.-C., Braithwaite, G. & Greaves, M. 2016. Pilots’ Visual Scan Patterns and Attention Distribution During the Pursuit of a Dynamic Target. Aerospace medicine and human performance, 87, 40-47.
Citation note:
Hareide O.S., Ostnes R.: Scan Pattern for the Maritime Navigator. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 11, No. 1, doi:10.12716/1001.11.01.03, pp. 39-47, 2017

File downloaded 427 times








Important: TransNav.eu cookie usage
The TransNav.eu website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the TransNav.eu website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony