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ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)
 

 

 

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Associate Editor
Tomasz Neumann
 

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TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@am.gdynia.pl
Ship-to-ship Operations in Cold Climate Environments
1 Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute (MARINTEK), Norway
ABSTRACT: Within the Norwegian maritime cluster there is a growing interest in studies of harsh weather marine operations. For the oil industry offshore loading is a preferred operation for production at minor oilfields far from existing infrastructure. Safe and cost-effective production from recent oil and gas discoveries close to the coastline of Northern Norway introduces new challenges due to cold climate environments. At the same time increased transit of oil from northwest Russia will require increased ship-to-ship transfer in an optimized cargo chain from the oilfields to customers in Europe and the USA.
REFERENCES
Bambulyak A. & Frantzen B. 2005a. Oil transport in the Barents Region. Third International Conference on “The Oil and Gas Industry and Sustainable Development of the Barents Region”, Murmansk, Russia, 9-11. November 2005.
Bambulyak A. & Frantzen B. 2005b. Oil transport from the Russian part of the Barents Region, Svanhovd Environmental Centre, Svanhovd.
Norwegian Meteorological Institute, 2005. Increased activity in the Barents Sea - Do we know the weather conditions good enough?, met.no info, no. 14/2005, ISSN 1503-8017, Oslo.
OCIMF, 2005. Ship to Ship Transfer Guide (Petroleum), Oil Companies International Marine Forum, London.
US Coast Guard, 2006. Code of Federal Regulations, 33 CFR Part 156 Subpart C, 156.320 Maximum operating conditions, Washington. Revised June, 2006.
Citation note:
Berg T.E.: Ship-to-ship Operations in Cold Climate Environments. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 327-332, 2007

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