HomePage
 




 


 

ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)
 

 

 

Editor-in-Chief

Associate Editor
Tomasz Neumann
 

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@am.gdynia.pl
On the Future of Maritime Transport – Discussing Terminology and Timeframes
ABSTRACT: This paper offers an analytical discussion on the terminology and timeframes related to the future of shipping. The discussion is based on issues that have surfaced within the Swedish research project Autonomy and responsibility. The paper argues that the concept ‘autonomous ships’ has become an indicator of that seafarers soon will become obsolete – which may have negative consequences for the supply of maritime competence in coming years - and that the proper definition of the term ‘autonomous’ describes something that will never apply to a ship. Ships can be given the possibility, but hardly the full right or condition of self-government. It is argued that ‘smart ships’, or perhaps ‘intelligent ships’, are more appropriate, since these terms describe the current and future state of technology without predicting how humans will prefer to use it. The estimated timeframes for implementation of unmanned ships suggest no threat to the seafaring occupation for coming generation. The content of the occupation will of course change due to the phase of implementation of degree of digitalization, but there will always be a need for maritime knowledge and understanding.
REFERENCES
Aftonbladet, (2017). Retrieved 2018-12-10: https://www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/a/MVrQB/har-ar-varldens-forsta-sjalvkorande-fartyg--kallas-havets-tesla
Allen, P., Wadsworth, E., & Smith, A. (2007). The prevention and management of seafarers’ fatigue: a review. Int Marit Health, 58(14), 167-177.
DMA, (2016). ‘A pre-analysis on autonomous ships’. Retrieved 2019-04-09: https://www.dma.dk/Documents/ Publikationer/Autonome%20skibe_DTU_rapport_UK.pdf
DNV GL, (2018): ‘Autonomous and remotely operated ships’. Retrieved 2019-04-09: http://rules.dnvgl.com/ docs/pdf/dnvgl/cg/2018-09/dnvgl-cg-0264.pdf
Government Offices of Sweden, (2017): ‘The Swedish climate policy framework’. Retrieved 2019-04-08: https://www. government.se/495f60/contentassets/883ae8e123bc4e42aa8d59296ebe0478/the-swedish-climate-policy-framework.pdf
Hall, B. H & Khan, B. (2002). New Economy Handbook. Retrieved 2018-12-10: https://eml.berkeley.edu/~bhhall/ papers/HallKhan03%20diffusion.pdf
IMO, (2018). ‘IMO takes first steps to address autonomous ships’ Retrieved 2018-12-10: http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/PressBriefings/Pages/08-MSC-99-MASS-scoping.aspx
Lighthouse (2018). ‘Kompetensförsörjning inom den svenska marina och maritima näringen’ Retrieved 2019-04-09: https://www.lighthouse.nu/sites/www.lighthouse.nu/files/webb_2.pdf
Lützhöft, M., Dahlgren, A., Kircher, A., Thorslund, B., & Gillberg, M. (2010). Fatigue at sea in Swedish shipping—a field study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53(7), 733-740. doi:10.1002/ajim.20814 - doi:10.1002/ajim.20814
MAREX, (2017). ’Autonomous Ships Before Autonomous Cars?’. Retrieved 2019-04-09: https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/autonomous-ships-before-autonomous-cars
MUNIN project, (2019). Retrieved 2018-12-10: http://www.unmanned-ship.org/munin/
NOVIMAR, (2017). ‘NOVIMAR and the vessel train concept’. Retrieved 2019-04-09: https://novimar.eu/concept/
Oxford Living Dictionary (2018). Retrieved 2018-12-10: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/autonomy
Perrow, C. (1999). Normal Accidents. Living with High-Risk Technologies Princeton. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Porathe, Thomas & Billeso, Bentzen (2015): ‘Human Factors in e-Navigation: a study of Dynamic NoGo Area Visualization in Electronic Nautical Charts’, A-Mast 2015, International Conference of Advanced Intelligent Maritime Safety and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute for Maritime Safety and Technology, MMU and Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering (KRISO).
Porathe, T; Prison, J & Y, Man (2014): ‘Situation awareness in remote control centres for unmanned ships’, Human Factors in Ship Design & Operation, 26 - 27 February 2014. London, UK.
Praetorius, G, Hult, C & Sandberg, C (2019) ‘Towards autonomous shipping – Exploring potential threats and opportunities in future maritime operations’. Paper accepted for publication at AHFE 2019, July 2019, Washington, D.C., USA. - doi:10.1007/978-3-030-20503-4_57
Relling, Tore, Lützhöft, Margareta, Ostnes, Runar & Hildre, Hans. (2018). ‘A Human Perspective on Maritime Autonomy’. 350-362. 10.1007/978-3-319-91467-1_27. - doi:10.1007/978-3-319-91467-1_27
Rosenberg, Nathan (1972). Factors affecting the diffusion of technology. Explorations in Economic History. Vol. 10(1). - doi:0.1016/0014-4983(72)90001-0
Ryllander, Robert & Man, Yemao (2016): ‘Autonomous safety on vessels: an international overview and trends within the transport sector’, Lighthouse.
Sjöfartstidningen, (2016). ’Autonoma fartyg snart verklighet i Finland’. Retrieved 2018-12-10: https://www.sjofartstidningen.se/ autonoma-fartyg-snart-verklighet-finland/
Sjöfartstidningen (2016). ’Allt färre vill bli sjöbefäl’. Retrieved 2019-04-09: https://www.sjofartstidningen.se/ allt-farre-vill-bli-sjobefal/
Sjöfartstidningen, (2017). ’Tomma platser på sjöbefälsutbildningarna’. Retrieved 2019-04-09: https://www.sjofartstidningen.se/tomma-platser-pa-sjobefalsutbildningarna/
World Maritime News, (2018). ‘Rolls-Royce, Intel Launch Autonomous Ship Collaboration’. Retrieved 2019-04-09: https://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/262598/rolls-royce-intel-launch-autonomous-ship-collaboration/
WMU, (2019). ‘Transport in 2040: how automation and technology will impact the future of work’. Retrieved 2019-04-09: https://www.wmu.se/news/transport-2040-how-automation-and-technology-will-impact-future-work
Yara Birkeland, (2019). ‘Yara Birkeland press kit’ https://www.yara.com/news-and-media/press-kits/yara-birkeland-press-kit/
Yle Uutiset, (2018). ‘Autonomous ferry makes first demonstration voyage in Finland’. Retrieved 2019-04-08: https://yle.fi/uutiset/osasto/news/autonomous_ ferry_makes_first_demonstration_voyage_in_finland/10537448
Citation note:
Hult C., Praetorius G.P., Sandberg C.: On the Future of Maritime Transport – Discussing Terminology and Timeframes. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 13, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.13.02.01, pp. 269-273, 2019

Other publications of authors:

A. Kataria, E.H. Holder, G.P. Praetorius, M. Baldauf, J.-U. Schröder-Hinrichs

File downloaded 29 times








Important: TransNav.eu cookie usage
The TransNav.eu website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the TransNav.eu website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony